I am a PHD-physicist retired from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. My favourite theme is gravitation.

The basic idea is that photons and charges are created in huge number during the Bic Bang (this is the hypothesis). By means of reflection and
scattering processes the charges and photons expand outward (effect of **Dark Energy?**). An process called **Congruent Expansion of Path and Wavelength** is responsible
that the wavelengths of photons have gained cosmic dimensions today. Such photons with ultralong wavelengths penetrate planets and stars as easy as radio long-wavelength waves dust particles.

To describe gravitation by photon collisions modern physics like Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with Photon-Photon Interaction, Uncertainty Principle, virtual fermion/anti-fermion-pair-generation are necessary for decription. This is the subject of my first publication.

In a recent publication I demonstrate that the effect of **Dank Matter**
in galaxies can be understood in the frame of the upper sketched Electromagnetic Theory of Gravitation since the interaction obeys the Rayleigh scattering formula, where increasing distances lead to
increased interaction forces i.e., to an increased gravitation factor (see graph of M33-gallaxy above, red curve).

To play with the idea of a space, filled with a spectrum of ultralong-waves- and zero point photons, the model of a mass consisting of confined photons in a cavity was developed. This study leads
directly to interesting **quantum mechanical** implications. A look to nature shows:

The Higgs particle gives quarks their mass. Nevertheless, the mass of a proton is larger than the mass of the constituent quarks by a factor of nearly hundred. Obviously, the force that confines the quarks in the proton, namely the gluons, are accountable for the mass amplification effect. A one-dimensional model is presented in which the proton and its mass are simulated by a massless cavity which contains back- and forth-reflecting light-fast photons. The investigation starts with the demonstration that momentum conservation and Doppler shift are sufficient for solving the Compton kinematics. Consequently, Doppler– and energy equations as well as each combination of the three equations yield the same result. From a mathematical perspective, the Compton effect is therefore overdetermined and the question arises: why is that the case and does it matter? To answer this: the photon-particle-interaction is reduced to a free photon-confined photon interaction, for which changes in momentum are exclusively Doppler-based. This suggests that the energy conservation itself describes a “storing” of the colliding free photon in the cavity. It fuses with the confined photon and decays in spontaneous or delayed fashion by emission of a Doppler-shifted free photon. Delayed emissions lead to a “stop-and-go” motion of the cavity with fictitious velocity and fictitious kinetic energy in accordance with the quantum-mechanic de Broglie relation between momentum and wavelength. This kind of motion consumes no energy and overcomes potentials (i.e. gravitation) with minimum energy consumption. To simulate a massless cavity, the model requires the existence of a photon pool similar to the zero-point radiation described by Casimir (1948). This photon pool and a thermal fraction help to stabilize and conserve the cavity. Acceleration by means of a swarm of incident-free photons at a cavity triggers a series of phase mismatches with the confined photons which lead to a distortion of the pool distribution. It is expected that an attractive “stop-and-go”-displacement of probe masses behind the accelerated cavity takes place – an effect consistent with energy conservation.

These statements are based on a simple model and may not describe reality in detail. But they may give useful information about first-order processes in the proton and may give links to understand quantum mechanic behavior.

The decisive result of the theory is, that besides the electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear forces the very very weak gravitation force is not the 4th fundamental phenomenon but only an effect of a locally isotropic electromagnetic radiation field

**Skepticism concerning Dark Matter scenario (a letter to the reader)**

The skepticism about Dark Matter scenario has impressed many. The impression that the deviations of the gravitation can have different reasons as for example described by the MOND-theory meets my feeling. I myself am impressed by a subject (see below) that can be a solving ansatz too:

In cooperation between me and Anselm Citron, the head of the Institute for Nuclear Physics at the former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, we found in the 90^{th} the phenomenon of the
congruence between path and wavelength of a photon. We modeled a system of two parallel positioned ideal mirrors, where a photon reflects back and forward. The pressure, the photon generates,
expands the two mirrors in an accelerating manner. We talk about congruence between path and wave, because the photon looses energy by Compton collisions and Doppler shifts and the wavelength
increases congruently with the path (photon energy converts successively into kinetic energy, the photon energy does not vanish).

If one considers two mirrors (with the mass of protons) in a distance of 10^{-15}m which are accelerated by a photon with the same wavelength, one can expect the following interesting
results:

- After 13 Billion years the mirrors will move with relativistic velocity in a distance of 10
^{25}m, - Expansion of the mirrors reminds to the model of Big Bang (the inflation theater will not fit here).
- Existence of photons with a wavelength of 10
^{25}m, unbelievable? The largest electromagnetic wavelengths known are some 10th of kilometer (detection of submarines by means of phase distortion in the sub-wavelength area, widely classified) - The 10
^{25}m-wavelength photons can collide but not transfer energy (thermalization) since the increase of the wavelength demands a further-expansion of space. Within a life-span the increase is immeasurable. - How many of this photons per volume unit are thinkable,
- How looks the interaction between charges and these photons like? The Rayleigh Scattering depends on the quotient: (photon frequency) / (characteristic frequency of movement) to the
4
^{th}potency (very small cross section in case of space).

In a rough sketch one can bring these points together: It can be that in the Big-Bang a gigantic number of photons and charged particles are involved in the expansion, so that the density of the ultra-longwave photons is still very high. Then the question arises, whether this interaction can be gravitation (A theory of gravitation on the basis of electromagnetism would also explain why gravitation forces are so weak in comparison with other elementary forces)

For example one can show that the probability for scattering (reflection) of photons on the way through the earth is given but low (__hereby electrons experience the same effect, but are__
strongly coupled to the protons). But losses of photons coming from the free sky are zero. The number of overshooting photons from the open sky press the charges to the ground. By the way, the
deflection of light by means of light relay on the ability of photons to decay from time to time in a fermion-antifermion pair (consequence of the quantum mechanic uncertainty). In this time span the
interaction between the ultra-longwave photons and the fermions takes place - a process just experimentally proved in the high energetic area, please see arXiv, 1702 01625,2017.

The feature that the deflection of light in the gravitational field is double of particle deflection can be understood plausible by means of light-light collision processes.

You see, to argue these mechanisms besides of SRT the QRT is necessary – most actual physics, although for visible light this process is not yet experimentally verified not to mention for longwave light.

In the formula of the Rayleigh Scattering the intensity factorconverts in a length relation (ω is the angular frequency of the ultra-longwave photons, ω_{p} the frequence of the “natural”
charges (movements of suns, planets) and Λ die characteristic length of galaxies) It means: the more the characteristic length Λ approaches the wavelength λ the more the gravitation forces
increase. For the M33 galaxy I have calculated this:

If you still read this letter I should warn you about the way I proceed. I do not take care to normal imaginations of physicists. To give an example: If it is spread that the space is empty except of some fluctuations, then I have to think about Richard P. Feynman and H.G.B. Casimir who were crushed by the reality of what is going on in the space.

Henning Genz from the Universität Karlsruhe described the structure of space to be a photonic one. Who is wondering if waves transform analogue to SRT, if the space seems to be structured by photons and waves.

These few lines should make you curious and demonstrate that it is not a convulsive search to understand the black matter with the help of “new physics”. In the frame of good understood and modern physics one can come to an understanding of gravitation. As I mentioned, it is only a sketch. There is still much to do and anger is included.

Yours truely

Christoph Schultheiss

**Final remark:** In 2004 I mailed the basic idea to PRL and was judged negatively by several referees. First of all it was the lack of the perihel-movement, which was delivered
later. Then it was the drag force. The high energy content of space and the resulting gravitational action was a problem although the energy of the zero-point-radiation is by many magnitudes higher.
Of course they feel that the work moves against the ART and reject finally. The correspondence with PRL is available.

Responsible for the content of this pages is Dr. Christoph Schultheiss in D-76327 Pfinztal, Edith-Stein-Weg 5, Germany. Contact email is eucschult@yahoo.de. February 2018